Academic Phrasebank

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Major Sections
Introducing work
Reviewing literature
Describing methods
Reporting results
Discussing findings
Writing conclusions

 

General Functions
Being critical

Classifying and listing
Compare and contrast

Defining terms
Explaining causality
Expressing caution
Describing trends
Describing quantities
Giving examples
Writing about the past
Preview and transition

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Reporting Results

The standard approach to this section of a research article or dissertation is to present and describe the results in a systematic and detailed way. When reporting qualitative results, the researcher will highlight and comment on the themes that emerge from the analysis. These comments will often be illustrated with excerpts from the raw data. In text based studies, this may comprise quotations from primary sources. In quantitative studies, the results section is likely to consist of tables and figures, and writers comment on the significant data shown in these. This often takes the form of the location or summary statement, which identifies the table or figure and indicates its content, and a highlighting statement or statements, which point out and describe the relevant or significant data. All figures and tables should be numbered and given a title.

More elaborate commentary on the results is normally restricted to the Discussion section. In research articles, however, authors may comment extensively on their results as they are presented, and it is not uncommon for the Results section to be combined with the Discussion section under the heading: Results and Discussion.

Reference to aim and/or method

To assess X, the Y questionnaire was used.
To distinguish between these two possibilities, ......
To compare the scores three weeks after initial screening, a global ANOVA F-test was used
In order to assess Z, repeated-measures ANOVAs were used.
Regression analysis was used to predict the ......
Changes in X and Y were compared using ......
The average scores of X and Y were compared in order to ......
Nine items on the questionnaire measured the extent to which ......
The correlation between X and Y was tested.
The first set of analyses examined the impact of ......
Simple statistical analysis was used to ......
A scatter diagram and a Pearson's product moment correlation were used to determine the ....
T-tests were used to analyse the relationship between ......
Comparisons between the two groups were made using unrelated t-tests.

Location and summary statements

Table 1

Figure 1

shows

compares

presents

provides

the experimental data on X.
the results obtained from the preliminary analysis of X.
the intercorrelations among the nine measures of X.
the breakdown of X according to ....
an overview of ....
the summary statistics for .....

The results obtained from the preliminary analysis of X

The results of the correlational analysis

The themes identified in these responses

are shown
can be compared
are presented
are set out
are summarised
in Table 1.

in Figure 1.

As shown in Figure 1,

As can be seen from the table (above),

It can be seen from the data in Table 1 that

From the graph above we can see that

the X group reported significantly more Y than the other two groups.


The table below illustrates

The pie chart above shows

some of the main characteristics of the .....

the breakdown of ....

Highlighting significant data in a table or chart

It is apparent from this table that very few ....
This table is quite revealing in several ways. First, unlike the other tables .....
What is interesting in this data is that ....
In Fig.10 there is a clear trend of decreasing ....
As Table III shows, there is a significant difference (t = -2.15, p = 0.03) between the two groups.
The differences between X and Y are highlighted in Table 4
Another interesting observation is that ....

From the chart, it can be seen that by far the greatest demand is for ....
From the data in Figure 9, it is apparent that the length of time left between ....
From these data, we can see that Study 2 resulted in the lowest value of ....
From the data in this chart, it is clear that ....
Data from this table can be compared with the data in Table 4.6 which shows ....

Statements of result (positive)

Strong evidence of X was found when ....
This result is significant at the p = 0.05 level.
There was a significant positive correlation between ....
There was a significant difference between the two conditions ....
On average, Xs were shown to have ....
The mean score for X was ....
Interestingly, for those subjects with X, ......
A positive correlation was found between X and Y.
The results, as shown in Table 1, indicate that ....
A two-way ANOVA revealed that ....
Post hoc analysis revealed that during ....

Further analysis showed that ....
Further statistical tests revealed .....

Statements of result (negative)

There was no increase of X associated with .....
There were no significant differences between ....
No significant differences were found between ....
No increase in X was detected.
No difference greater than X was observed.
No significant reduction in X was found with Y compared with placebo.

None of these differences were statistically significant.
Overall, X did not affect males and females differently in these measure.
The Chi-square test did not show any significant differences between ....
A clear benefit of  X in the prevention of Y could not be identified in this analysis.
Only trace amounts of X were detected in ....

Highlighting significant, interesting or surprising results

The most striking result to emerge from the data is that ....
Interestingly, this correlation is related to ....
The correlation between X and Y is interesting because ....
The more surprising correlation is with the ....
The single most striking observation to emerge from the data comparison was ....
Interestingly, the X was observed to ....
Interestingly, there were also differences in the ratios of ....

Reporting a reaction

When X cells were stimulated with Y, no significant difference in the number of Z was detected
However, stimulation of X cells with Y did not increase the ....
Following the addition of X, a significant increase (P<0.05) in the Y was recorded.

Reporting results from questionnaires and interviews

The response rate was 60% at six months and 56% at 12 months.
Of the study population, 90 subjects completed and returned the questionnaire.
Of the initial cohort of 123 students, 66 were female and 57 male.
Thirty-two individuals returned the questionnaires.
By the end of the survey period, data had been collected from 64 individuals, 23 of whom were ....

This section of the questionnaire required respondents to give information on ....
Respondents were asked to indicate whether ....
Respondents were asked to suggest other reasons for ....
There were 53 responses to the question: '....?'
The total number of responses for this question was ....
The overall response to this question was poor.

In response to the question: '....?', a range of responses was elicited.
In response to Question 1, most of those surveyed indicated that ....
The overall response to this question was very positive.
When the participants were asked ......, the majority commented that ....
Other responses to this question included ....
The majority of those who responded to this item felt that ....
Of the 62 participants who responded to this question, 30 reported an increase in ....

70% of those who were interviewed indicated that .....
Almost two-thirds of the participants (64%) said that .....
Just over half of those who answered this question reported that ....
Over half of those surveyed reported that ....
Approximately half of those surveyed did not comment on .....
Of the 148 patients who completed the questionnaire, just over half indicated that ....

A small number of those interviewed suggested that .....
Only a small number of respondents indicated that ....
Some participants expressed the belief that …..
One individual stated that '….' And another commented '….'
A minority of participants (17%) indicated that ....
One participant commented: ' ....'
Another interviewee alluded to the notion of ....

Observations about qualitative data

The themes of .… recurred throughout the dataset
Five broad themes emerged from the analysis.
Two discrete reasons emerged from this. First …. Second .…
A number of issues were identified .…
This theme came up for example in discussions of .…
A recurrent theme in the (interviews) was a sense amongst (interviewees) that …

These views surfaced mainly in what respects .…
There was a sense of amongst interviewees .…
A variety of perspectives were expressed .…
A common view amongst (interviewees) was that .…
Issues related to X were not particularly prominent in the interview data.

In their accounts of the events surrounding ....
As one interviewee said: ....
As one interviewee put it: ....
For example, one interviewee said: ....
Talking about this issue an (interviewee) said: ....
Another interviewee, when asked …, said: ....
The extract/comment  below shows ….

Some (interviewees) argued that .… while others .…
Some felt that .… while others considered that .…
(Two) divergent and (often) conflicting discourses emerged .…
Whilst a minority mentioned that… all agreed that…

Transition statements

We shall discuss each of these (factors) in turn …
Turning now to the experimental evidence on ....
Comparing the two results, it can be seen that ....
A comparison of the two results reveals ....
If we now turn to ....
The next section of the survey was concerned with ....
In the final part of the survey, respondents were asked ....

Summary and transition

Overall, these results indicate that ....
These results suggest that ....
Together these results provide important insights into ....
Taken together, these results suggest that there is an association between ....
In summary, these results show that ....
The results in this Chapter indicate that .... The next Chapter, therefore, moves on to discuss the ....

 

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Last updated: 15 April, 2014